General chronology
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Exodus model comparison

This page presents a rapid and approximate summary of dates for the Exodus and wilderness accounts, compared with conventional and David Rohl chronology dates for salient external (mostly Egyptian, some Canaanite) dynasties and practices. It deliberately does not venture into the Conquest and Judges accounts. This kind of reconstruction is only intended to give a rough indication, and not an exact one - the purpose is broad-brush comparison of Biblical with externally-fixed history, not a detailed analysis.

2000
 
1900
 
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1700
 
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1400
 
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1200
 
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Conventional dates
A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
 
G
 
H
 
I
 
Exodus end D13
Exodus end Hyksos
Exodus in Thutmose 3
Exodus in Amarna
Exodus in Rameses 2
Exodus start D20
New Chronology dates
A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
 
G
 
H
 
I
 
Exodus end D13
Exodus end Hyksos
Exodus in Thutmose 3
Exodus in Amarna
Exodus in Rameses 2
Exodus start D20

Dates used

  1. Deuteronomy covenant form (link to Deuteronomy and covenant form and chronology sections) - Middle Hittite forms (OC 1500-1300, NC 1100-950).
  2. Deuteronomy legal aspects (link to Deuteronomy and law code form and chronology sections) - intermediate in development between Hammurabi (OC 1792-1749, NC 1565-1522) and Hittite (OC 1500-1300, NC 1150-950) or Middle Assyrian (OC 1300-1100, NC 1200-950) forms.
  3. Deuteronomy 21:15 provisions for inheritance of sons (link to reference material - see end of Chronology section) - similar in development to Mari (OC 1950-1804, NC 1800-1531) and Nuzi (Nuzi OC 1600-1500, NC 1400-1300).
  4. Tent of Meeting design and technical names (link to reference material) - Ugarit (OC 1600-1200, NC 1200-900).
  5. Miriam's Song (link to reference material) - Ugaritic poetry (OC 1600-1200, NC 1200-900).
  6. Slave compensation price in Exodus 21:32 (link to reference material - see end of Chronology section) - comparable to values from Nuzi (OC 1600-1500, NC 1400-1300) and Ugarit (OC 1600-1200, NC 1200-900), later (more expensive) than Joseph.
  7. Numbers 33 route list (link to reference material) - Late Bronze (New Kingdom) Egyptian (OC 1500-1250, NC 1150-950).
  8. Use of tsûr as name element and to refer to gods in general (link to reference material) - Middle and Late Bronze (OC 2000-1100, NC 1900-850).
  9. Use of Pharaoh as a title for the monarch but without a specific name - Egyptian New Kingdom (OC 1525-1069, NC 1183-813) - prior to this used for the palace, subsequently used in conjunction with the name.

The difficulty with the New Chronology dates is two-fold. First, certain items are drawn away from each other rather than being grouped in a cluster. Secondly, the main overlap area is pulled away from the start of the Hyksos era. Most of the textual items included suggest a Late Bronze / New Kingdom setting. The New Chronology extension of the Hyksos period from c. 100 years to c. 250 years results in a much greater tension between an immediately-pre-Hyksos Exodus and textual parallels.

In conventional terms, the area of greatest overlap between the selected parallels is around the end of the Hyksos era and the start of the New Kingdom, viz. around 1550-1400 BCE. In New Chronology terms, it is around 1200-1050.

General chronology