General chronology
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Exodus models and the Philistines

Overview

This page presents a rapid and approximate summary of Judges dates (making a variety of different assumptions for Exodus) compared with conventional chroology dates for salient Egyptian dynasties and rulers. The main focus here is on the arrival of the Philistines and other Sea Peoples groups, and the Judges who are said to have confronted them. The variation between models is taken to arise simply through varying the date of Exodus itself. Judges is assumed to relate events sequentially, but the years assigned to each Judge, and the degree to which the various Judges may have ruled in parallel, are altered. The overall result is that each Judge is located at approximately the correct proportion through the overall period. This kind of reconstruction is only intended to give a rough indication, and not an exact one - the purpose is broad-brush comparison with Egyptian history, not a detailed analysis.

D13
 
Hyksos
 
D18
 
Thut 3
 
Amarna
 
D19
 
Ram 2
 
Merenptah
 
D20
 
Setnakhte
Ram 3
 
D21
 
1640 Exodus
 
Othniel
 
Shamgar
 
Barak
 
Jephthah
 
1540 Exodus
 
Othniel
 
Shamgar
 
Barak
 
Jephthah
 
1450 Exodus
 
Othniel
 
Shamgar
 
Barak
 
Jephthah
 
1250 Exodus
 
Othniel
 
Shamgar
 
Barak
 
Jephthah
 
Samuel, Saul, Battle of Mizpah
David
Textual mention of other Sea Peoples starts
Archaeological evidence starts (pithos burials)
1st Sea Peoples' invasion
Textual mention of Peleset
2nd invasion

Notes:

David's reign is taken to start around 1010 BCE. The Battle of Mizpah can be taken as marking the end of the period of Judges. In broad terms the internal OT chronology places this between 1040 and 1090, depending on issues such as the reign-length of Saul and the age of Samuel, neither of which is known with certainty.

The various models represent the following situations:

Rough evaluation

Dates used

Hyksos - 1636-1539
18th dynasty - 1539-1295 (Thutmose 3 - 1479-1425, Amarna c. 1350)
19th dynasty - 1295-1186 (Rameses 2 1279-1213, Merenptah 1213-1203)
20th dynasty - 1186-1069 (Setnakhte 1186-1184, Rameses 3 1184-1153)
21st dynasty - 1069-945
General chronology