Language issues
Main home page   Amazon UK Store Amazon COM Store  
Translations Languages Language issues Writing Chronology Patriarchs Exodus Judges Google+1 Site access Mobile apps Resources Site map

Conventions used

Sections

Conventions used for Hebrew texts

Consonantal alphabet

Hebrew character Character name Transliteration used here Other variations found
a ’aleph  
b B bêth bh, b b, b
g G gîmel gh, g g, g
d D dâleth dh, d d, d
h h  
w wâw (vâv) w v
z zayin z  
x chêth ch ·
j têth t #
y yôdh y  
k K kaph kh, k k, k
$ kaph final k  
l lâmedh l  
m mêm m  
~ mêm final m  
n nûn n  
! nûn final n  
s çâmekh ç s
[ ‘ayin  
p P pêh ph, p p, p
@ pêh final p  
c tsâdhê ts %
# tsâdhê final ts %
q qôph q  
r rêysh r  
f v sîn, shîn s, sh š, ¸, $
t T tâv th, t t, t

Vowel pointing

Hebrew character Character name Transliteration used here Other variations found
" Qâmêts (long a, sometimes long o) â ª
\ Sheva-Qâmêts (short o) â  
: Pattach (short a) a  
] Sheva-Pattach (short a with guttural) a  
E Tsêrêy (long e) ê ®
, Çêgôwl (short e) e  
/ Sheva-Çêgôwl (short e with guttural) e  
. Sheva (hurried/neutral vowel, sometimes silent) e or '  
O Chôlem (long o) ô  
W   (long u) û ¥
I Chîyrîq (long i) î
U Qibbuts (u, usually short) u  

Return to top of page

Conventions used for Egyptian texts

Single Consonant signs

Egyptian character Name / read as Transliteration used here Other variations found
A aleph A  
I yodh / soft y i  
a ayin a  
W waw w  
B b b  
P p p  
F f f  
M m m  
N n n  
R r r  
H h h  
h emphatic h H  
k hard ch (as Scottish loch) x k
c soft ch (as German ich) x  
S or s s s  
C sh S  
Q q q o
K k k  
G g g  
T hard t t  
t softer t T  
D hard d d  
j dj, soft d D  

Language issues