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Genesis 3:1-24 - analysis of words used

 TranslationTransliteration
1.   wehannâchâsh hâyâh ‘ârûm mikkôl chayyath hassâdeh ’asher ‘âsâh YHVH ’elôhîym wayyô’mer ’el-hâ’ishshâh ’aph kîy-’âmar ’elôhîym lô’ thô’khelû mikkôl ‘êts haggân
2.   wattô’mer hâ’ishshâh ’el-hannâchâsh mipperîy ‘êts-haggân nô’khêl
3. nâga‘ touch/reach/strike ûmipperîy hâ‘êts ’asher bethôwkh-haggân ’âmar ’elôhîym lô’ thô’khelû mimmennû welô’ thigge‘û bôw pen-temuthûn
4.   wayyô’mer hannâchâsh ’el-hâ’ishshâh lô’-môwth temuthûn
5.   kîy yôdêa‘ ’elôhîym kîy beyôwm ’akhâlekhem mimmennû wenipqechû ‘êynêykhem wiheyîythem kê’lôhîym yôde‘êy tôwb wârâ‘
6. hasekîyl - from sâkhal, be prudent, Hiph‘îyl infinitive construct, giving insight/comprehension wattêre’ hâ’ishshâh kîy tôwb hâ‘êts lema’akhâl wekhîy tha’avâh-hû’ lâ‘êynayim wenechemâdhâ‘êts lehasekîyl wattiqqach mippireyôw wattô’khal wattittên gam-le’îyshâh ‘immâh wayyô’khal
7.   wattippâqachenâh ‘ênêy shenêyhem wayyêde‘û kîy ‘êyrummim hêm wayyithperû ‘alêh the’ênâh wayya‘asû lâhem chagôrôth
8.   wayyishme‘û ’eth-qôwl YHVH ’elôhîym mithhallêkh baggân lerûach hayyôwm wayyithchabbê’ hâ’âdâm we’ishetôw mippenêy YHVH ’elôhîym bethôwkh ‘êts haggân
9.   wayyiqerâ’ YHVH ’elôhîym ’el-hâ’âdâm wayyô’mer lôw ’ayyekkâh
10.   vayyô’mer ’eth-qôlekhâ shâma‘etîy baggân vâ’îyrâ’ kîy-‘êyrôm ’ânôkhîy wâ’êchâbê’
11. higgîyd, Hiph‘îyl of nâgad, be conspicuous
lebiletîy - to not, bêleth, particle of negation + le
vayyô’mer mîy higgîyd lekhâ kîy ‘êyrôm ’âttâh hamin hâ‘êts ’asher tsiwwîythîykhâ lebiletîy ’akhâl-mimmennû ’âkhâle
12.   vayyô’mer hâ’dâm hâ’ishshâh ’asher nâthattâh ‘immâdîy hiw’ nâthenâh-lîy min-hâ‘êts wâ’ôkhêl
13.   vayyô’mer YHVH ’elôhîym lâ’ishshâh mah-zzô’th ‘âsîyth wattô’mer hâ’ishshâh hannâchâsh hishshîy’anîy wâ’ôkhêl
14. a) vayyômer - and he said
b) Yahweh Elohim
c) ’el - to / towards
d) hannâchâsh - the serpent

a) kîy - for / because / since
b) ‘âsîythâ - from ‘âsâh, do / make - Qal perfect 2MS
c) zô’th - this (fem)

a) ’ârûr - from ’ârar, curse - Qal passive participle
b) ’attâh - you (sing)
c) mikol - from / among / out of all
d) habbehêmâh - the beast / animal (esp domesticated) / cattle

a) mikôl - from / among / out of all
b) chayyath - the living things of (plural construct)
c) hassâdeh - the field / land / open country

a) ‘al - upon
b) gechônekhâ - your belly
c) têlêkh - you will go, from hâlakh, go / come, Qal imperfect 2MS

a) ve‘âphâr - and dust
b) tôkal - you wil eat, from ’âkal, eat - Qal imperfect 2MS
c) kol-yemêy - all the days of (plural construct)
d) chayyeykhâ - your life / your being

 
vayyômer YHVH ’elôhîym ’el-hannâchâsh
 
 
 

kîy ‘âsîythâ zô’th
 
 

’ârûr ’attâh mikol-habbehêmâh
 
 
 

ûmikôl chayyath hassâdeh
 
 

‘al-gechônekhâ têlêkh
 
 

ve‘âphâr tôkal kol-yemêy chayyeykhâ
 
 
 

 
15. a) ve’êbâh - and enmity / personal hostility
b) ’âshîyth - I will set, from shîyth, put / set / appoint / station - Qal imperfect 1S
c) bêynekhâ - between you
d) ûbêyn - and between
e) hâ’ishshâh - the woman

a) ûbêyn - and between
b) zareakhâ - your seed
c) ûbêyn - and between
d) zare‘âh - her seed

a) hû’ - he (emphatic)
b) yeshûphekhâ - he wil bruise, from shûph, bruise - Qal imperfect 3MS
c) rô’sh - head

a) ve’attâh - and you (sing)
b) teshûphennû - you will bruise, from shûph, bruise - Qal imperfect 2MS
c) ‘âqêb - heel / hindpart

 
ve’êbâh ’âshîyth bêynekhâ ûbêyn hâ’ishshâh
 
 
 
 

ûbêyn zareakhâ ûbêyn zare‘âh
 
 
 

hû’ yeshûphekhâ rô’sh
 
 

ve’attâh teshûphennû ‘âqêb
 
 

 
16. a) ’el-hâ’ishshâh - to the woman
b) ’âmar - from ’âmar, he said, Qal perfect 3MS

a) harebbâh - to increase, from râbâh, become great / much, Hiphîyl infinitive absolute
b) ’arebbeh - I will increase, from râbâh, become great / much, Hiphîyl imperfect 1MS
c) ‘itstsebôwnêkh - your pain / hurt
d) vehêrônêkh - and conception / pregnancy

a) be‘etsebh - in pain / hurt / toil
b) têledîy - from yâlad, bear / give birth - Qal imperfect 2FS
c) bânîym - sons

a) ve’el - and to / towards
b) ’îyshêkh - your man / husband
c) teshûqâthêkh - your abundance / overflow

a) vehû’ - and he (emphatic)
b) yimeshal - he will rule, from mâshal, rule - Qal imperfect 3MS
c) bâkh - in / on you

 
Ç ’el-hâ’ishshâh ’âmar
 

harebbâh ’arebbeh ‘itstsebôwnêkh vehêrônêkh
 
 
 

be‘etsebh têledîy bânîym
 
 

ve’el-’îyshêkh teshûqâthêkh
 
 

vehû’ yimeshal-bâkh
 
 

 
17. a) ûle’âdâm - and to / towards the man / Adam
b) ’âmar - he said, Qal perfect 3MS

a) kîy - for / because / since
b) shâma‘ethâ - you listened, from shâma‘, hear / listen - Qal perfect 2MS
c) leqôwl - to the voice of (construct)
d) ’ishethekhâ - your woman / wife

a) vattô’kal - and you ate, from ’âkal, eat - Qal perfect 2MS
b) min-hâ‘êts - from the tree
c) ’asher - which
d) tsivvîythîykhâ - I commanded you, from tsâvâh, command / lay charge, Pi‘êl perfect 1MS

a) lê’môr - saying
b) lô’ - negation
c) tô’kal - you will eat, from ’âkal, eat - Qal imperfect 2MS
d) mimmennû - from it (3MS)

a) ’arûrâh - cursed, from ’ârar, curse, Qal passive participle, emphatic ending
b) hâ’adâmâh - the ground
c) ba‘abûrekhâ - in your account, from ‘âbûr, for the sake of / on account of / in order that

a) be‘itstsâbôwn - pain / toil
b) tô’kelennâh - you will eat from it, from ’âkal, eat Qal imperfect 2MS + suffix
c) kol - all
d) yemêy - all the days of (plural construct)
e) hayyeykhâ - your life / your being

 
Ç ûle’âdâm ’âmar
 

kîy shâma‘ethâ leqôwl ’ishethekhâ
 
 
 

vattô’kal min-hâ‘êts ’asher tsivvîythîykhâ
 
 
 

lê’môr lô’ tô’kal mimmennû
 
 
 

arûrâh hâ’adâmâh ba‘abûrekhâ
 
 

be‘itstsâbôwn tô’kelennâh kol yemêy hayyeykhâ
 
 
 
 

 
18. a) veqôwts - and a thorn / thornbush
b) vedaredar - and a thistle
c) tatsmîyah - from tsâmach, sprout / spring up - Hiphîyl 3FS
d) lâkh - to you (sing)

a) ve’âkaletâ - and you will eat, from ’âkal, eat - Qal perfect 3MS
b) ’eth-‘êseb - (object marker) herb / herbiage of (construct)
c) hassâdeh - the field / land / open country

 
veqôwts vedaredar tatsmîyah lâkh
 
 
 

ve’âkaletâ ’eth-‘êseb hassâdeh
 
 

 
19. a) bezê‘ah - in / by sweat
b) ’apeykhâ - your face
c) tô’kal - you will eat, from ’âkal, eat - Qal imperfect 2MS
d) lechem - bread

a) ‘ad - until
b) shûbekhâ - your return, from shûwb, return - infinitive construct
c) ’el - to / towards
d) hâ’adâmâh - the earth / ground

a) kîy - for / because / since
b) mimmennâh - from it (fem)
c) luqqâchetâ - you were taken, from lâqach, take from / take out of - Pu‘al perfect 2MS

a) kîy - for / because / since
b) ‘âphâr - dust
c) ’attâh - you (sing)

a) ve’el - and to / towards
b) ‘âphâr - dust
c) tâshûb - you will return from shûwb, return - Qal imperfect 2MS

 
bezê‘ah ’apeykhâ tô’kal lechem
 
 
 

‘ad shûbekhâ ’el-hâ’adâmâh
 
 
 

kîy mimmennâh luqqâche
 
 

kîy-‘âphâr ’attâh
 
 

ve’el-‘âphâr tâshûb
 
 

 
20. a) vayyiqrâ’ - from qâra’, call / proclaim / give name to - Qal imperfect 3MS
b) hâ’âdâm - the man
c) shêm - the name of (construct)
d) ’ishtôw - his woman / wife
e) Chavvah

a) kîy hiv’ - for she (emphatic)
b) hâyethâh - she will become, from hâyâh, become / come to pass, Qal imperfect 3MF
c) ’êm - mother of
d) kol-chay - all life / living

 
vayyiqrâ’ hâ’âdâm shêm ’ishtôw chavvâh
 
 
 
 

kîy hiv’ hâyethâh ’êm kol-chay
 
 
 

 
21. a) vayya‘as - and he made, from ‘âsâh, do / make, Qal imperfect 3MS
b) Yahweh Elohim
c) le’âdâm - to Adam
d) ûle’ishtôw - and his woman / wife
e) kâthenôth - tunics of, from kethôneth
f) ‘ôwr - skin / hide / leather

a) vayyalebishêm - and he clothed them, from lâbash, put on clothes, Hiphîyl 3MS

 
vayya‘as YHVH ’elôhîym le’âdâm ûle’ishtôw kâthenôw ‘ôwr
 
 
 
 
 

vayyalebishêm

 
22. a) vayyô’mer - and he said
b) Yahweh Elohim

a) hên - See!
b) hâ’âdâm - the man
c) hâyâh - he has become, Qal 3MS
d) ke’achad mimmennû - like one of us

a) lâda‘ath - to knowledge
b) tôwb vârâ‘ - good and evil

a) ve‘attâh - soon / now / shortly / at last, adverb from ‘êth, time (n.fem)
b) pen-yishelach - lest / if he will stretch out, from shâlach, Qal imperfect 3MS
c) yâdôw - his hand

a) velâqach - and he will take, Qal perfect 3MS
b) gam - moreover / yea / even
c) mê‘êts - from the tree of
d) hachayyîym - the living/life
e) ve’âkal - and he will eat, Qal perfect 3MS

a) vâchay - and he will live, from châyâh, live, Qal imperfect 3MS
b) le‘ôlâm - to eternity / forever

 
P vayyô’mer YHVH ’elôhîym
 

hên hâ’âdâm hâyâh ke’achad mimmennû
 
 
 

lâda‘ath tôwb vârâ‘
 

ve‘attâh pen-yishelach yâdôw
 
 

velâqach gam mê‘êts hachayyîym ve’âkal
 
 
 
 

vâchay le‘ôlâm
 

23. a) vayyeshallechêhû - and he sent him away, from shâlach, send out, Qal imperfect 3MS
b) Yahweh Elohim
c) miggan-‘êden - from the garden of Eden

a) la‘abôd - to work, from ‘âbad, work / serve / tend, Qal infinitive
b) ’eth-hâ’adâmâh - the earth / ground
c) ’asher - which
d) luqqach - he was taken, from lâqach, Pu‘al 3MS
e) mishshâm - from there

 
vayyeshallechêhû YHVH ’elôhîym miggan-‘êden
 
 

la‘abôd ’eth-hâ’adâmâh ’asher luqqach mishshâm
 
 
 
 

 
24. a) vayegâresh - and he drove out, from gârash, drive out / cast out / send into exile / divorce, Qal inmperfect 3MS
b) ’eth-hâ’âdâm - the man

a) vayyashekên - and he placed, from shâkan, settle down / abide, Hiphîyl 3MS (establish / place / cause to dwell)
b) miqqedem - from in front of / against / the east
c) legan-‘êden - to the garden of Eden
d) ’eth-hakkerubîym - (object marker) the Kerubim

b) ve’êth - and (object marker)
c) lahat - a flame, from lâhat, blaze up / flame
d) hachereb - the sword
e) hammithhapheketh - turning every way / whirling, from hâphakh, turn / overturn, Hithpa‘êl imperfect participle

a) lishemôr - to the keeping of
b) ’eth-derek - the way of
c) ‘êts - the tree of
d) hachayyîym - the living/life

 
vayegâresh ’eth-hâ’âdâm
 

vayyashekên miqqedem legan-‘êden ’eth-hakkerubîym
 
 
 

ve’êth lahat hachereb hammithhapheketh
 
 
 

lishemôr ’eth-derek ‘êts hachayyîym
 
 
 

 

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