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Miriam's Song (the Song of the Sea) - Exodus 15 - analysis of words used

Then Mosheh sang this song with the children of Yisra'el to Yahweh, proclaiming:

1. a) ’ashîyrah, from shîyr, sing - Qal imperfect 1s
b) to Yahweh
c) kîy - for / because
d) gâ’ôh, from gâ’âh, rise up, Qal infinitive construct
e) gâ’âh, rise up, Qal perfect 3ms

a) çûç - horse, Masculine
b) werôkebôw - his rider / charioteer, Masculine
c) râmâh - cast/shoot, Qal 3ms
d) bayyam - into the sea, Masculine

’ashîyrah laYHVH kîy-gâ’ôh gâ’âh

çûç werôkebôw râmâh bayyam

2. a) ‘âzzîy - my strength / might / power, Masculine
b) wezimrâth - melody, song (in praise of Yahweh), from zâmar, make music in praise of God, Feminine
c) Yah
d) wayehîy-lîy - and he is to/for me
e) lîyshû‘âh - my salvation / deliverance / liberation, Feminine

a) zeh - this / this one
b) ’êlîy - my God / my El
c) we’anewêhû, from nâwâh, beautify, Hiph‘îyl imperfect 1s, glorify/beautify/adorn with praise

a) ’elôhêy - the God of (construct)
b) ’âbîy - my father, Masculine
c) wa’arômemenhû, from rûm, be high/exalted/rise, Pô‘lêl, lift up/raise/cause to grow/raise

‘âzzîy wezimrâth yâh wayehîy-lîy lîyshû‘âh

zeh ’êlîy we’anewêhû

elôhêy ’âbîy wa’arômemenhû

3. a) Yahweh
b) ’îysh - a man of (construct), Masculine
c) milchâmâh - war / battle, Feminine

a) Yahweh
b) shemôw - his name, Masculine

YHVH ’îysh milchâmâh

YHVH shemôw

4. a) markebôth - his chariots, Feminine
b) par‘ôh - Pharaoh, Masculine
c) wechêylôw - and his army/host/might/strength, Masculine
d) yârâh, throw/shoot/cast, Qal 3ms
e) bayyâm - into the sea, Masculine

a) ûmibechar - choice/best, Masculine
b) shâlishâyw - his third-men (adjutants/officers in chariot), Masculine
c) tubbe‘û - from tâba‘ sink/sink down, Pu‘al perfect 3ms, be sunk
d) beyam-çuph - into Yam Suph, Masculine

markebôth par‘ôh wechêylôw yârâh bayyâm

ûmibechar shâlishâyw tubbe‘û beyam-çuph

5. a) tehômôth - deep/deep sea/abyss, cf Tiamat in Mesopotamian sources, Feminine
b) yekaçyumû, from kâçâh, cover, Pi‘êl imperfect 3mp cover over/conceal/hide
c) yâredû, from yârad, go down, Qal perfect 3mp
d) bimetsôwlôth - into the depths of, from tsûl, hollowed/basin-like (?), Feminine
e) kemôw-’âben - like a stone, Feminine

tehômôth yekaçyumû yâredû bimetsôwlôth kemôw-’âben

6. a) yemîynekâ - your right hand, Feminine
b) Yahweh
c) ne’dârîy, from ’âdar, be wide/great/high/noble, Niph‘al Participle construct
d) bakôach - in strength/power/ability, Masculine

a) yemîynekâ - your right hand, Feminine
b) Yahweh
c) tir‘ats, from râ‘ats, shatter, Qal imperfect 3ms
d) ’ôwyêb - the enemy, Masculine

yemîynekâ YHVH ne’dârîy bakôach

yemîynekâ YHVH tir‘ats ’ôwyêb

7. a) ûberôb - and in the greatness/abundance of, Masculine
b) ge’ôwnekâ - your exaltation/majesty/excellence, Masculine
c) taharôç, from hâraç, throw down/break/tear down/overthrow, Qal imperfect 2ms
d) qâmeykâ, from qûm Qal plural participle, Masculine

a) teshallach, from shâlach, send, Pi‘êl imperfect 2ms, send out/send forth/stretch out/let loose
b) charônekâ - burning anger, from chârâh, burn/kindle (anger), Masculine
c) yô’kelêmôw, from ’âkhal, eat/comsume, Qal inperfect 2ms
d) kaqqash - like stubble/chaff, from be old/dried up, cf qâshash gather stubble, Masculine

ûberôb ge’ôwnekâ taharôç qâmeykâ

teshallach charônekâ yô’kelêmôw kaqqash

8. a) ûberûach - and in breath / spirit / wind, Feminine
b) ’appeykâ - of your anger, Masculine
c) ne‘eremû - from ‘âram, Niph‘al perfect 3mp, be heaped up
d) mayim - water, Masculine

a) nitstsebû, from nâtsab, Niph‘al stand/take a stand/be upright, perfect 3mp
b) kemôw-nêd - like it was a heap (last from root meaning high hill/earth heap), Masculine
c) nôzelîym - from nâzal, flow/trickle, Qal plural participle, streams/floods, Masculine

a) qâphe’û, qâphâ’ thicken/condense/congeal, Qal perfect 3mp
b) tehômôth - deep/deep sea/abyss, cf Tiamat in Mesopotamian sources, Feminine
c) beleb-yam - in the heart of the sea, Masculine

ûberûach ’appeykâ ne‘eremû mayim

nitstsebû kemôw-nêd nôzelîym

qâphe’û tehômôth beleb-yam

9. a) ’âmar - said - Qal perfect 3MS
b) ’ôyeb - enemy, Masculine
c) ’eredôph - from râdaph, pursue/chase/persecute, Qal imperfect 1s
d) ’assîyg, from nâsag, reach/overtake, Hiph‘îyl imperfect 1s

a) ’achallêq, from châlaq, divide/share, Pi‘êl imperfect 1s
b) shâlâl - prey/spoil/plunder/booty, from shâlal despoil/plunder, Masculine
c) timelâ’êmôw, from mâlê’, fill/be full, Qal imperfect 3ms
d) napheshîy - my soul / life / being, Feminine

a) ’ârîyq, from rîyq, empty/make empty, Hiphîyl imperfect 1s (technical for draw weapon)
b) charebîy - my sword, Feminine
c) tôwrîyshêmôw, from yârash, take possession of/dispossess, Hiphîyl imperfect 1s, cause to possess/dispossess, bring to ruin/impoverish
d) yâdîy - my right hand, Feminine

’âmar ’ôyeb ’eredôph ’assîyg

achallêq shâlâl timelâ’êmôw napheshîy

’ârîyq charebîy tôrîyshêmôw yâdîy

10. a) nâshaphetâ, nâshaph, blow, Qal perfect 2ms
b) berûchakâ - in your breath / spirit / wind, Feminine
c) kiççâmôw, from kâçâh, cover, Pi‘êl perfect 3ms, cover over/conceal/hide
d) yâm - sea, Masculine

a) tsâlalû, sink/be submerged Qal perfect 3mp
b) ka‘ôphereth - like lead, Masculine
c) bemayim - in water, Masculine
d) ’addîyrîym - majestic

nâshaphetâ berûchakâ kiççâmôw yâm

tsâlalû ka‘ôphereth bemayim ’addîyrîym

11. a) mîy-kâmôkâh - who like you?
b) bâ’êlim - in the gods, Masculine
c) Yahweh

a) mîy kâmôkâh - who like you?
b) ne’dâr, from ’âdar, be wide/great/high/noble, Niph‘al Participle, Masculine
c) baqqôdesh - in holiness, Masculine

a) nôwrâ’, from yârêh, fear, Niph‘al participle, awe-inspiring/fearful/astonishing/dreadful, Masculine
b) tehillôth, praises, from hâlal (Pi‘êl) praise, Feminine
c) ‘ôsêh-phele’ - a worker/doer/maker (from ‘âsah) of wonder/marvel/extraordinary thing, Masculine

mîy-kâmôkâh bâ’êlim YHVH

mîy kâmôkâh ne’dâr baqqôdesh

nôwrâ’ tehillôth ‘ôsêh-phele’

12. a) nâtîythâ, from nâtâh, stretch out/extend, Qal perfect 2ms
b) yemîynekâ - your right hand, Feminine
c) tiblâ‘êmôw, from bâla‘, swallow/engulf, Qal imperfect 2fs
d) ’arets - the earth, Feminine

tîythâ yemîynekâ tiblâ‘êmôw ’arets

13. a) nâchîytâ, from nâchâh, lead/guide, Qal perfect 2ms
b) bechaçdekâ - in your loving kindness / mercy, Masculine
c) ‘am-zû- this people / nation, Masculine
d) gâ’aletâ, from gâ’al, redeem/act as kinsman, Qal perfect 2ms

a) nêhaletâ, from nâhal, lead/guide towards watering-place/bring to place of rest, Pi‘êl perfect 2ms
b) be‘âzzekâ - in your strength / might / power, Masculine
c) ‘el-newêh - towards abode/habitation/journey's destination/pasture/meadow, Masculine
d) qâdeshekâ - your holy, Masculine

nâchîytâ bechaçdekâ ‘am-zû gâ’ale

nêhaletâ be‘âzzekâ ‘el-newêh qâdeshekâ

14. a) shâme‘û - from shâma‘, hear - Qal perfect 3MP
b) ‘ammîym - peoples / nations, Masculine
c) yiregâzûn, from râgaz, be agitated/quiver/quake/be excited/be perturbed, Qal imperfect 3ms

a) chîyl - writhing/anguish, Masculine
b) ’âchaz - grasp/take hold/take possession, Qal perfect 3ms
c) yôshebêy - from yâshab, sit / dwell - Qal infinitive construct, Masculine
d) Pelasheth

shâme‘û ‘ammîym yiregâzûn

chîyl ’âchaz yôshebêy pelâshêth

15. a) ’âz - then/therefore/at that time
b) nibehalû, bâhal, Niph‘al be disturbed/dismayed/terrified, perfect 3mp
c) ’allûpêy - leaders / captains of (plural construct), Masculine
d) ’edôm

a) ’êylêy - the chiefs/leaders of (from ’âwal/’âyal be in front of), Masculine
b) Mo'ab
c) yo’chazêmû, from ’âchaz, grasp/take hold/take possession, Qal imperfect 3ms + s/f
d) ra‘ad - trembling, Masculine

a) nâmôgû, from mûg, melt/faint, Niph‘al perfect 3mp
b) kôl
c) yôshebêy - from yâshab, sit / dwell - Qal infinitive construct, Masculine
d) Canaan

’âz nibehalû ’allûpêy ’edôm

’êylêy môw’âb yo’chazêmû ra‘ad

nâmôgû kôl yôshebêy kenâ‘an

16. a) tippôl, from nâphal, fall/lie, Qal imperfect 3fs
b) ‘alêcem
c) ’êymâtâh - terror/dread, Feminine
d) wâphachad - and dread, Masculine

a) bigedôl - in the greatness
b) zerôw‘akâ - your arm/shoulder/strength, from zâra‘ stretch out/extend, Feminine
c) yidemû, from dâmam, be or grow dumb/silent/still, Qal imperfect 3mp
d) kâ’âben - like a stone, Feminine

a) ‘ad-ya‘abôr - while/until/even as he passes over/by/through, ‘âbar Qal imperfect 3ms
b) ‘ammekâ - your people / nation, Masculine
c) Yahweh

a) ‘ad-ya‘abôr - while/until/even as he passes over/by/through, ‘âbar Qal imperfect 3ms
b) ‘am-zû - this people / nation, Masculine
c) qânîythâ, from qânâh, get/acquire/buy/purchase/gain/own, Qal perfect 2ms

tippôl ‘alêchem ’êymâtâh wâphachad

bigedôl zerôw‘ekâ yidemû kâ’âben

‘ad-ya‘abôr ‘ammekâ YHVH

‘ad-ya‘abôr ‘am-zû qânîythâ

17. a) tebi’êmôw, from bôw’, Hiph‘îyl imperfect 2ms + s/f, bring in/cause to come in/carry in/send out/lead in or out
b) wethittâ‘êmôw, from nâta‘, plant/establish/settle/root, Qal imperfect 2ms + s/f
c) behar, in the mountain of, Masculine
d) nachalâtekâ, your possession/inheritance/patrimony/estate, Feminine

a) mâkôwn - fixed place/foundation/established place, from kûn, be firm, Masculine
b) leshibtekâ, from yâshab, sit/remain/dwell/abide, Feminine
c) pâ‘aletâ, do/make, Qal perfect 2ms
d) Yahweh

a) miqqedâsh - sanctuary/sacred place, Masculine
b) ’adônây - my lord/Adonay
c) kôwnenû, Po‘lêl perfect 3mp
d) yâdeykâ - your hands, Feminine

tebi’êmôw wetittâ‘êmôw behar nachalâte

mâkôwn leshibtekâ pâ‘aletâ YHVH

miqqedâsh ’adônây kôwnenû yâdeykâ

18. a) Yahweh
b) yimelôkâ - from mâlakh, reign - Qal imperfect 3MS
c) le‘ôlâm - to eternity / forever
d) wâ‘ed - and in perpetuity/continuously

YHVH yimelôkâ le‘ôlâm wâ‘ed